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Formative Assessment

Black, P. & Wiliam, D (1998a) Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education, 5(1), 7-71.

Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998b) Inside the Black Box: raising standards through classroom assessment London UK: King’s College London School of Education.

Black, P. J.; Harrison, C.; Lee, C.; Marshall, B. & Wiliam, D (2002) Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. London, UK: King’s College London School of Education.

Brown, G. and  Wragg, E.C. (1993) Questioning. London: Routledge.

DfES  KS 3 Strategy Assessment for learning resources

King's Assessment for Learning Group



A web site giving examples of different types of questions

Two good books on all different types of questioning with examples.

Morgan, N. and Saxton, J. (1991) Teaching Questioning and Learning.  London: Routledge

Brown, G. and  Wragg, E.C. (1993) Questioning. London: Routledge

Wait time

Rowe, M. B. (1974a) Wait time and Rewards as instructional variables, their inference in language, logic and fate control: Part 1.  Wait time. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 11(3), 263-279.

Rowe, M. B. (1986) Wait time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up! Journal of Teacher Education, 37, 43-50

Effective Feedback

Butler, R. (1988). Enhancing and undermining intrinsic motivation; the effects of task-involving and ego-involving evaluation on interest and performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, 1-14.

Formative use of Summative assessment

King, A. (1990). Enhancing peer interaction and learning in the classroom through reciprocal interaction. American Education Research Journal, 27 (4), 664-687

King, A. (1992). Comparison of Self-Questioning, Summarising and Note taking-Review as Strategies for Learning from Lectures. American Educational Research Journal, 29 (2), 303-323.



Adey, P. (2004) Elaborating the model, Chapter 11 in P.Adey with G. Hewitt, J. Hewitt and N. Landau, The Professional Development of Teachers: Practice and Theory, 155 – 173.  Kluwer Academic Publishers: Netherlands

Baird, Fensham, Gunstone & White (1991) The Importance of Reflection in Improving Science Teaching and Learning. Journal of research in science teaching, 28 (2) 163 - 182

Bolam, R. (1993) ‘Recent developments and emerging issues’, in The continuing Professional Development of Teachers. London:GTC

Bell, B. & Gilbert, J. (1996) Teacher Development: A model from science education. London: Falmer Press

Craft, A. (1996) Continuing Professional Development: a practical guide for teachers and schools. London : Routledge

Dillon, J., Osborne, J., Fairbrother, R., and Kurina, L (2000) A study into the professional views and needs of science teachers in primary and secondary schools in England.  Accessed on 05.08.04 available at

Earley, P. & Bubb, S. (2004) Leading and managing continuing professional development: developing people, developing schools. London UK: Paul Chapman

Grimmett, P. & Neufeld, J. (1994) Teacher development and the struggle for authenticity: Professional growth and restructuring in the context of change. New York: Teachers College Press

G.T.C. (2003) The Teachers’ Professional Learning Framework, London: General Teaching Council.  Accessed on 05.08.04 available from

‘Teacher learning academies’  Accessed on 05.08.04 available at

 DfES (2004) Five Year Strategy for Children and Learners’ accessed on 05.08.04 available at

DfES (2002) ‘National Centre for Excellence in Science Teaching Consultation’ accessed on 05.08.04 available at

Higgins, S. and Leat, D. (2001) ‘Horses for courses: what is effective teacher development’ in Soler, J., Craft, A and Burgess, H. (eds).  Teacher development: exploring our own practice. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.

Joyce and Showers (1988) (1st ed) Student Achievement Through Staff Development: Fundamentals of School Renewal. London: Longman Publishing Group.

Joyce, B. and Showers, B. (1995) (2nd ed) Student Achievement Through Staff Development: Fundamentals of School Renewal. London: Longman Publishing Group

Lederman, N.,  Gess-Newsome, J., and Latz, M. (1994) The nature and development of preservice science teachers’ conceptions of subject matter and pedagogy. Journal of research in science teaching, 31 (2) 129 - 146

Lieberman, A. (1996) ‘Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning’. In McLaughlin, M and Oberman, I. (Eds) Teacher learning: new policies, new practices. New York: Teachers College Press

Schön, D. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Shulman, L.S  (1987) Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard educational Review, 57 (1) 1 – 22

Van Driel, J. and Beijaard, D. (2003) Enhancing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through collegial interaction, Chapter 6 in Wallace, J. and Loughran, J (eds) , Leadership and Professional Developmetn in Science Education: New possibilities for enhancing teacher learning, 99 – 115.  RoutledgeFalmer: London


CPD links

Teachers T.V. 

Science Learning Centres website

Institute of Biology



Pupil Learning links

This is not an exhaustive list, it is just meant to provide a staring place 

Good site with lots of downloadable resources for KS3 science and KS4 and KS5 Biology

Teacher Resource Exchange

The Science Enhancement Programme

The National Curriculum on line, which has links to curriculum resources


Science for Citizenship

Andersson, B. (1990). ‘Pupils conceptions of matter and its transformation (age 12-16)’, Studies in Science Education, 18, 53–58

Bono, E. (1990) Six thinking hats.  Harmonsworth: Penguin

Claxton, G (1997) A 2020 vision of education. pp.71-86 in Levinson, R. & Thomas, J. (eds.) Science Today: Problem or Crisis. Routledge: London

Dimopoulos, K. and Koualidis, V. (2002). Science and Technology Education for Citizenship: The Potential Role of the Press.  Science Education, 87, 241–256

KolstØ, S. (2000). Consensus projects: Teaching science for citizenship. International Journal of Science Education, 22 (6), 645–664.

KolstØ, S. (2001) Scientific literacy for citizenship: Tools for dealing with the science dimension of controversial socio-scientific issues. Science Education, 85 (3), 291-310

Millar, R (1997) Science education for democracy: what can science education achieve? pp.87-101 in Levinson, R. & Thomas, J. (eds.) Science Today: Problem or Crisis. Routledge: London

Millar, R. and Osborne, J. (eds.) (1998) Beyond 2000: Science education for the future. London: King’s College London

Organisation For Economic Cooperation And Development (OECD) (1998) Instrument design: A framework for assessing scientific literacy. Report of Project Managers Meeting. Arnhem: Programme for International Student Assessment.

Radcliffe, M. and Grace, M. (2003) Science Education for Citizenship: Teaching Socio-scientific Issues. Maidenhead: Open University Press.



Driver, R., Newton, P. & Osborne, J. (2000) Establishing the Norms of Scientific Argumentation in Classrooms. Science Education, 84(3) p 287 – 312.

Osborne, J., Erduran, S., Simon, S. & Monk, M. (2001) Enhancing the quality of argument in school science. School Science Review, 82(301), 63 – 70. 

Osborne, J., Erduran, S. & Simon, S. (2004) Ideas, Evidence and Argument in Science. INSET manual, Resource Pack and Training Video. London: King’s College London.

Toulmin, S. (1958) The Uses of Argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Argumentation links


Misconceptions References


Barker, M. and Carr, M. (1989). ‘Photosynthesis – Can our pupils see the wood for the trees?’ Journal of Biological Education, 23 (1), 41-44

Barker, M. and Carr, M. (1989b).  Teaching and learning about Photosynthesis. Part 2: A Generative Learning Strategy. International Journal of Science Education, 11 (1), 49-56

Bell, B. (1985). Students’ ideas about plant nutrition: what are they? Journal of Biological Education, 19 (3), 213-218

Children’s Learning in Science Project  (1987) CLIS in the classroom: approaches to teaching, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education, University of Leeds.

Driver R., Squires A., Rushworth P. & Wood-Robinson V., (1994) Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into Children’s Ideas. London: Routledge.

Duit, R (1991) Students’ Conceptual Frameworks p 65-85 in Glynn, S., Yeany, R. & Britton, B. (eds.) The Psychology of Learning Science. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Eisen, Y. and Stavy, R. (1992).  Material Cycles in Nature. A New Approach to Teaching Photosynthesis in junior High School. The American Biology Teacher, 54 (6), 339-342

Glynn, S., Yeany, R. & Britton, B. (1991) A Constructive View of Learning Science p 3-19 in Glynn, S., Yeany, R. & Britton, B. (eds.) The Psychology of Learning Science. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.



1. A bibliography of literature on misconceptions complied by Reinders Duit – updated April 2004

Details of the evidence based practice in science education project.

2. Three teachers packs for ‘teaching science for understanding’ available concerning: Electric Circuits, Plant Nutrition and Modelling Change




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Last modified: 08/12/04